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The “Hurrian Hymn to Nikkal”, found on clay tablets that date back to approximately 1400 BC, is the oldest surviving notated work of music. Funk locations most of its emphasis on rhythm and groove, with entire songs based mostly around a vamp on a single chord. Pictured are the influential funk musicians George Clinton and Parliament-Funkadelic in 2006.

The earliest material and representational evidence of Egyptian musical devices dates to the Predynastic interval, but the proof is extra securely attested in the Old Kingdom when harps, flutes and double clarinets have been performed. Percussion instruments, lyres and lutes were added to orchestras by the Middle Kingdom.


Cymbals incessantly accompanied music and dance, much as they still do in Egypt at present. Egyptian people music, together with the traditional Sufi dhikr rituals, are the closest contemporary music style to historical Egyptian music, having preserved a lot of its features, rhythms and instruments. Prehistoric music can only be theorized primarily based on findings from paleolithic archaeology sites.

Expressive qualities are those elements in music that create change in music with out changing the principle pitches or considerably changing the rhythms of the melody and its accompaniment. Timbre, generally known as “colour” or “tone color” is the standard or sound of a voice or instrument. Timbre is what makes a specific musical sound completely different from another, even once they have the identical pitch and loudness. For instance, a 440 Hz A note sounds totally different when it’s performed on oboe, piano, violin or electric guitar. When musicians play three or extra different notes at the similar time, this creates a chord.

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Flutes are sometimes discovered, carved from bones during which lateral holes have been pierced; these are thought to have been blown at one finish like the Japanese shakuhachi. The Divje Babe flute, carved from a cave bear femur, is considered at least 40,000 years old. Instruments such because the seven-holed flute and various kinds of stringed instruments, such because the Ravanahatha, have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites.

India has one of the oldest musical traditions on the earth—references to Indian classical music (marga) are found in the Vedas, ancient scriptures of the Hindu tradition. The earliest and largest assortment of prehistoric musical instruments was found in China and dates again to between 7000 and 6600 BC.